MicroRNAs from Diagnosis to Therapy: Future Perspective

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerged as posttranscriptional regulators, involved in many biological processes including, cell cycle, differentiation, proliferation,migration, secretion, aging and apoptosis,essential for the development and physiology of various organs [1].
Dysregulation of miRNAs may alter gene networks in disease states such as, metabolic diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases; thus, miRNA therapy could restore gene expression in the cells to reverse back in normal state. Their dysregulation may lead to the development of potential therapeutic targets for treating various diseases [2]. Furthermore, a single miRNA can target single or multiple mRNA gene targets [3]. Promising preclinical studies in the biomedical/clinical field demonstrated constructive therapeutic strategy for treating disorders ranging from metabolic diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative disorders to organ failure, although several challenges related to tissue specificity, targeted delivery remain to be overcome.
Moreover, ratio of successful experimental studies is low, due to expensive technologies and approaches used in miRNA discovery, identification of biomarkers and therapeutic markers.Until now, miRNAs have been extensively studying, but their specific functions
remain largely unknown [4].


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