Prevalence of Thalassemia Traits and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Sindh, Pakistan

Among microcytic hypochromic anemias, the most common disorders are iron deficiency anemia and co-pathological conditions such as α- or β-thalassemia (α- or β-thal) traits. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and α- or β-thal traits based on clinical laboratory data across different ethnic groups in five districts of Sindh Province, Pakistan. The present retrospective study analyzed 3 years (2012–2015) of encoded and unlinked clinical laboratory data, and identified 3030 microcytic hypochromic anemia cases. The data contained complete blood counts (CBCs) with smear morphology examinations, serum ferritin levels, and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoreses. After reviewing the data, 994 confirmed subjects (iron deficiency anemia and α- and β-thal traits) were then selected for the present study. The prevalence of α- and β-thal traits was highest in Badin district (35.27%), while the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was highest in Larkana district (30.73%). According to the ethnic-wise distribution, higher numbers of α- and β-thal trait cases were seen in the Sindhi ethnic group [375 (64.21%) and 283 (69.02%), respectively] than in the other ethnic groups. In addition, a higher distribution of β-thal trait cases was observed in the Sindhi ethnic group [n = 327 (56%)] in α- and β-thal cases overall. Findings from the present study strongly suggested that screening is important not only for β-thal trait but also other traits as well. However, careful monitoring of CBC parameters, including red blood cell (RBC) indices and morphology, along with clinical findings are essential to diagnose carrier cases, especially in high prevalence areas.

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PepBio: predicting the bioactivity of host defense peptides

Abstract

Host defense peptides (HDPs) represents a class of ubiquitous and rapid responding immune molecules capable of direct inactivation of a wide range of pathogens. Recent research has shown HDPs to be promising candidates for development as a novel class of broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent that is effective against both pathogenic microbes and malignant neoplasm. This study aims to quantitatively explore the relationship between easy-to-interpret amino acid composition descriptors of HDPs with their respective bioactivities. Classification models were constructed using the C4.5 decision tree and random forest classifiers. Good predictive performance was achieved as deduced from the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in excess of 90% and Matthews correlation coefficient in excess of 0.5 for all three evaluated data subsets (e.g. training, 10-fold cross-validation and external validation sets). The source code and data set used for the construction of classification models are available on GitHub at https://github.com/chaninn/pepbio/.

 

Saw Simeon, Hao Li, Thet Su Win, Aijaz Ahmad Malik, Abdul Hafeez Kandhro,
Theeraphon Piacham, Watshara Shoombuatong, Pornlada Nuchnoi, Jarl E. S. Wikberg,
M. Paul Gleesonf and Chanin Nantasenamat

Full-text available at: http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/ra/c7ra01388d#!divAbstract

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The Management of Glycemic Control in Associated Disorders

Abstract

Glycemic control is a very useful parameter for the prevention of the chronic metabolic diseases complications such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and kidney disease. Glycemic control   management among chronic metabolic diseases has been an area of active research from the past decades. The glycemic index specifies that how fasting blood glucose level is elevated after consuming a high carbohydrate-containing diet. The metabolic studies among the human populations showed that glycemic index is directly related with different chronic metabolic diseases. The sturdiest associations are suggested that the low caloric diet consumption can prevents metabolic complications. Primary and tight glycemic control is compulsory to prevent and reduce the development of vascular complications in individuals with chronic disorders. The aim of this review was to provide a practical guideline   on the bases of the survey of the related key studies which had reflected the clinical guidelines   and current perspectives related to glycemic management. The objective of this review is also to investigate the   interventions, related to glycemic control in patients with diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, we can say that multidisciplinary management of glycemic control are powerful measure for the prevention of metabolic diseases complications, providing necessary support for reducing in economic burden of chronic metabolic diseases.

Muhammad Imran, Sumreen Begum, Dr. Abdul Hafeez Kandhro, Nazia Ahmed, Rashida Qasim

Full-text available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317586626_The_Management_of_Glycemic_Control_in_Associated_Disorders

 

 

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Prediction of therapy response in ovarian cancer: Where are we now?

Therapy resistance is a major challenge in the management of ovarian cancer (OC). Advances in detection and new technology validation have led to the emergence of biomarkers that can predict responses to available therapies. It is important to identify predictive biomarkers to select resistant and sensitive patients in order to reduce important toxicities, to reduce costs and to increase survival. The discovery of predictive and prognostic biomarkers for monitoring therapy is a developing field and provides promising perspectives in the era of personalized medicine. This review article will discuss the biology of OC with a focus on targetable pathways; current therapies; mechanisms of resistance; predictive biomarkers for chemotherapy, antiangiogenic and DNA-targeted therapies, and optimal cytoreductive surgery; and the emergence of liquid biopsy using recent studies from the Medline database and ClinicalTrials.gov.

  • Khalid El Bairi
  • Mariam Amrani
  • Abdul Hafeez Kandhro
  • Said Afqir
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Emerging diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers for ovarian cancer

Abstract

Background

In spite of various treatment options currently available, ovarian cancer (OC) still remains a leading cause of death in women world-wide. Diagnosis at an early stage is one of the most important factors that determines survival. Current clinical diagnostic tools have, however, a limited efficacy in early OC detection. Therefore, there is a critical need for new (early) diagnostic biomarkers and tools. Through advances in genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques, several novel molecular OC biomarkers have recently been identified. These biomarkers are currently subject to validation. In addition, integration of genomic, proteomic and metabolomic data, in conjunction with epidemiologic and clinical data, is considered essential for obtaining useful results. Interesting recent work has already shown that specific diagnostic biomarkers, such as BRCA mutations, may have profound therapeutic implications. Here, we review the current state of OC research through literature and database searches, with a focus on various recently identified biomarkers via different technologies for the (early) diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of OC.

Conclusions

Multi-biomarker panels accompanied by a meticulous determination of their sensitivity and specificity, as well their validation, using multivariate analyses will be critical for its clinical application, including early OC detection and tailor-made OC treatment.

Keywords

Ovarian cancer Biomarkers Diagnosis Prognosis Circulating tumor cells Epigenetics 

  • Khalid El Bairiail
  • Abdul Hafeez Kandhro
  • Adel Gouri
  • Wafaa Mahfoud
  • Noureddine Louanjli
  • Brahim Saadani
  • Said Afqir
  • Mariam Amrani

Cellular Oncology 

April 2017, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 105–118

 

Full-text availbale at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13402-016-0309-1

 

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MicroRNAs from Diagnosis to Therapy: Future Perspective

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerged as posttranscriptional regulators, involved in many biological processes including, cell cycle, differentiation, proliferation,migration, secretion, aging and apoptosis,essential for the development and physiology of various organs [1].
Dysregulation of miRNAs may alter gene networks in disease states such as, metabolic diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases; thus, miRNA therapy could restore gene expression in the cells to reverse back in normal state. Their dysregulation may lead to the development of potential therapeutic targets for treating various diseases [2]. Furthermore, a single miRNA can target single or multiple mRNA gene targets [3]. Promising preclinical studies in the biomedical/clinical field demonstrated constructive therapeutic strategy for treating disorders ranging from metabolic diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative disorders to organ failure, although several challenges related to tissue specificity, targeted delivery remain to be overcome.
Moreover, ratio of successful experimental studies is low, due to expensive technologies and approaches used in miRNA discovery, identification of biomarkers and therapeutic markers.Until now, miRNAs have been extensively studying, but their specific functions
remain largely unknown [4].

 

For Further detail read full article here:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309490491_MicroRNAs_from_Diagnosis_to_Therapy_Future_Perspective

 

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Interplay between Cholesterol, SREBPs, MicroRNA-33 in Dyslipidemia

Dyslipidemia is characterized by elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs) or both, or a low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level that contributes to the development of insulin resistance, Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and atherosclerosis. Dietary fat and cholesterol, genetics and other risk factors are responsible for producing variations in the lipids. The cholesterol plays a major function in the body, cholesterol homeostasis mechanism is regulated by the sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) and firstly introduced by Brown and Goldstein. The SREBP transcription factors act coordinately with their intronic microRNAs (miRNA-33a / miRNA-33b) to regulate both fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Recently, multiple studies described microRNA-33a and SREBP2 cooperation for cholesterogenic transcription to improve intracellular cholesterol levels; suggesting that therapeutic approach of miR-33 targeting antisense would imperative for reverse cholesterol transport from atherogenic macrophages, as a result reduce atherosclerosis.Dyslipidemia is characterized by elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs) or both, or a low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level that contributes to the development of insulin resistance, Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and atherosclerosis. Dietary fat and cholesterol, genetics and other risk factors are responsible for producing variations in the lipids. The cholesterol plays a major function in the body, cholesterol homeostasis mechanism is regulated by the sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) and firstly introduced by Brown and Goldstein. The SREBP transcription factors act coordinately with their intronic microRNAs (miRNA-33a / miRNA-33b) to regulate both fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Recently, multiple studies described microRNA-33a and SREBP2 cooperation for cholesterogenic transcription to improve intracellular cholesterol levels; suggesting that therapeutic approach of miR-33 targeting antisense would imperative for reverse cholesterol transport from atherogenic macrophages, as a result reduce atherosclerosis.

For further reading, please read my review  article on below link:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304394812_Interplay_between_Cholesterol_SREBPs_MicroRNA-33_in_Dyslipidemia

 

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