MicroRNAs from Diagnosis to Therapy: Future Perspective

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerged as posttranscriptional regulators, involved in many biological processes including, cell cycle, differentiation, proliferation,migration, secretion, aging and apoptosis,essential for the development and physiology of various organs [1].
Dysregulation of miRNAs may alter gene networks in disease states such as, metabolic diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases; thus, miRNA therapy could restore gene expression in the cells to reverse back in normal state. Their dysregulation may lead to the development of potential therapeutic targets for treating various diseases [2]. Furthermore, a single miRNA can target single or multiple mRNA gene targets [3]. Promising preclinical studies in the biomedical/clinical field demonstrated constructive therapeutic strategy for treating disorders ranging from metabolic diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative disorders to organ failure, although several challenges related to tissue specificity, targeted delivery remain to be overcome.
Moreover, ratio of successful experimental studies is low, due to expensive technologies and approaches used in miRNA discovery, identification of biomarkers and therapeutic markers.Until now, miRNAs have been extensively studying, but their specific functions
remain largely unknown [4].

 

For Further detail read full article here:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309490491_MicroRNAs_from_Diagnosis_to_Therapy_Future_Perspective

 

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Interplay between Cholesterol, SREBPs, MicroRNA-33 in Dyslipidemia

Dyslipidemia is characterized by elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs) or both, or a low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level that contributes to the development of insulin resistance, Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and atherosclerosis. Dietary fat and cholesterol, genetics and other risk factors are responsible for producing variations in the lipids. The cholesterol plays a major function in the body, cholesterol homeostasis mechanism is regulated by the sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) and firstly introduced by Brown and Goldstein. The SREBP transcription factors act coordinately with their intronic microRNAs (miRNA-33a / miRNA-33b) to regulate both fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Recently, multiple studies described microRNA-33a and SREBP2 cooperation for cholesterogenic transcription to improve intracellular cholesterol levels; suggesting that therapeutic approach of miR-33 targeting antisense would imperative for reverse cholesterol transport from atherogenic macrophages, as a result reduce atherosclerosis.Dyslipidemia is characterized by elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs) or both, or a low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level that contributes to the development of insulin resistance, Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and atherosclerosis. Dietary fat and cholesterol, genetics and other risk factors are responsible for producing variations in the lipids. The cholesterol plays a major function in the body, cholesterol homeostasis mechanism is regulated by the sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) and firstly introduced by Brown and Goldstein. The SREBP transcription factors act coordinately with their intronic microRNAs (miRNA-33a / miRNA-33b) to regulate both fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Recently, multiple studies described microRNA-33a and SREBP2 cooperation for cholesterogenic transcription to improve intracellular cholesterol levels; suggesting that therapeutic approach of miR-33 targeting antisense would imperative for reverse cholesterol transport from atherogenic macrophages, as a result reduce atherosclerosis.

For further reading, please read my review  article on below link:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304394812_Interplay_between_Cholesterol_SREBPs_MicroRNA-33_in_Dyslipidemia

 

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Hematological Parameters in Transgender Persons

I want to highlight and contributes the challenges of clinical laboratory tests specially “Hematological parameters in transgender persons“. The transgender’s main challenges in pathology and clinical laboratory practices which becomes more complex, if not taking seriously at the moment. These challenges include, inflexibility of electronic medical records in documenting affirmed gender, unfamiliarity among medical and laboratory professional with the needs of and terminology related to the transgender population, lack of reference ranges for laboratory tests, unclear guidelines regarding gender classification for blood donation eligibility criteria, and paucity of experience in handling and interpreting surgical and cytologic specimens from gender-transitioning individuals etc. In addition, social , systemic and physiological barriers hinders proper medical care to transgender, no room availability based on genders as in systemic point of view male and female rooms.

The detailed may found at:Hematological Parameters in Transgender Person

 

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Successful Entrepreneur

Few things which are important for successful Entrepreneurs:

1. To improve communication between the disciplines of the practice of clinical medicine and clinical laboratory medicine.

2. Be punctual in your duties, plan schedule meetings, appointments to resolve issues within time.
3. Employee’s encouragement necessary for work reward, work devotion and honesty.
4. Speak with your staff politely and gently to show them you are Human.
5. Always respect customers, give them quick response for their queries and sensitive issues.

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Quality System Essentials… How you maintain QS in your laboratory, for the betterment of patient’s health & healthcare services?

The appropriate ordering and interpreting of laboratory tests is an essential element of a physician’s clinical skills. Along with history taking, physical examination, and the thoughtful use of imaging techniques, the clinical laboratory is a major tool in the clinician’s armamentarium. The introduction of sophisticated quality improvement techniques into the clinical arena has evolved substantially in the past decade. It makes sense to integrate the changes that we make in our daily practice of medicine with quality improvement changes in the clinical laboratory in order to maximize the functionality of both areas for the safety and quality of care for our patients.

For running good laboratory standard in clinical labs, thus essential and primary focusing area under the quality systems. The quality system itself play a role as a central dogma of any commercial lab/hospital lab.

What are the steps should be taken to maintain and operational Quality System in every laboratory of your area, for betterment of patient’s health and healthcare services?

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Customer Relationship management in Multinational Companies of Pakistan

Outside Pakistan we can see multinational companies (diagnostic and research divisions) are performing best services, and making stronger relationships with customers, introducing new business from time to time and constantly maintaining and balancing the bridge between customers and companies itself whether the critical situation. Those critical situations not only for customers, but sometimes affects companies as well.

In Pakistan,  unfortunately most of the companies can’t maintain and balance customer relationships, due to many factors, below some factors such as:

  1. Company’s staff experienced in sales and marketing, but lacking of attitude & behavior.
  2. More respect offered to some of higher business provider customers, but neglecting or showing no interest for lower business customers.
  3. Motivation of staff is fair to good in these companies, but limited for favoritism.
  4. Customer feedback is missing in mostly lower business providers, similarly some companies have vice versa like even a high business provider customer, but not entertained for feedback and other services on time, those companies are having sole distribution for unique products, hence their behavior with customers is poor to very poor.
  5. e) Some companies leave their equipment and products at common places (customer place), and to use those places as a reference for other new customers attractions (in fact their equipment whether functional or not).
  6. f) The rates of the tests or equipment are not fixed, so they have a big range of quoting prices for their products, in this way they make bigger profits, but on the other hand, they lose their profit by offering payment to customer’s reference persons, Government department purchaser committee, accounts and so on……So ultimately customer paid the highest price……would it be legal? Some companies when they lose more profit in such kinds of illegal payments, then they make duplication in their ordered products, equipment parts…how they are cruel to mankind….
  7. Some companies only focus on some of the high business provider customers, which can develop a negative marketing for new customers who don’t have such kind of high business in earlier times. Such kind of high business providing customers dominated to lower business provider customers and with the help of companies trying to cease their business OR some companies offers good services to high business customers but poor services to lower business customers so that they can terminate their business.

And there are many more factors from customer site as well that could affect company’s business and the company’s reputation but are rare.

  1. How to resolve or minimize those factors?
  2. How can we establish good relationship (Customer+Company) either in business loss or profit.
  3. How can we stop third party competitors (high business providing customers) who enforce companies to cease or breach contracts with lower business provider competitors.
  4. Is there any solution to maintain and balance all relationships?
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Chapter 2. Elucidating the Structure-Activity Relationship of Curcumin and Its Biological Activities

Abstract

Curcumin is a major constituent of the turmeric plant Curcuma longa, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, which is cultivated in India, most parts of Southeast Asia, Asia and other parts of the world. Curcumin has been shown to afford a wide range of pharmacological activities encompassing antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiproliferative, proapoptotic and anti-atherosclerotic effects as well as medicinal benefits against neurodegenerative diseases, arthritis, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, nephrotoxicity, AIDS, psoriasis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disease and lung fibrosis. Moreover, curcumin could suppress inflammatory cytokines as well as suppress various target proteins in cancer cell lines. Owing to its multi-faceted health benefits, curcumin has been used as health supplements as well as natural remedy while several clinical trials are under way to investigate its potential therapeutic usage. This chapter discusses the origins of curcumin’s biological activities in light of its structure-activity relationship. The structure of curcumin is comprised of the central 1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione bearing two terminal phenolic rings. Structural modification of this compound alters its biological activities either by affecting its selectivity, specificity or potency. Understanding of such structure-activity relationship may provide the impetus for further expanding its biological activity repertoire. Although it is an ambitious task to review the current state-of-the-art on the structure-activity relationship of curcumin, it should be mentioned that it is impossible for this chapter to provide a comprehensive account but rather a representative overview is given herein.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266387551_Chapter_2_Elucidating_the_Structure-Activity_Relationship_of_Curcumin_and_Its_Biological_Activities

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